The history of cosmonautics
Space is an inexhaustible source of discoveries. And yet thanks to technological advances, which began 400 years ago with the use of the telescope by Galileo, we know quite a lot about the Universe. Studying various forms of cosmic radiation, astronomers have discovered black holes, other planetary systems and even “glow bubbles” and the Big Bang. However, they still failed to detect any signs of life beyond our planet.
February 2, 1955 the resolution of the Government of the USSR on construction of a polygon for testing Intercontinental ballistic missiles. The Baikonur cosmodrome has decided to build in Kazakhstan. Since 1957, Baikonur is the first and largest cosmodrome in the world.
October 4, 1957 our country launched the first artificial Earth satellite (Sputnik-1).He was in orbit 92 days from October 4, 1957 January 4, 1958, for this period has made 1400 revolutions around the Earth. On each revolution around the Earth took about 100 minutes. Then the satellite burned up in Earth’s atmosphere.
October 4, 1957 is considered the beginning of the space age.In honor of this event in 1964 in Moscow was built 99-meter obelisk “Conquerors of space” in the form of rockets taking off, leaving behind a trail of fire.
The first animal brought into Earth’s orbit was the dog Laika. It was launched into space on 3 November 1957 at half past five in the morning Moscow time.
August 20, 1960 in space flew the dogs Belka and Strelka were the first animals safely returned from space flight. After the daily flight, they were returned to Earth in an ejection capsule and became worldwide celebrities.
April 12, 1961, in 9 hours 7 minutes, the Soviet Union orbited the Earth spaceship-Sputnik `Vostok` with a man on Board.
It was Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin.
Said `go` Gagarin Rocket into space they went.That was a risky guy!Ever since the era started.The era travels and discoveries,Progress, peace and labour,Hopes, desires and events, Now all this is forever.There will come a day when prostranstvakh wants will be able to surf!Even on the moon, please sojourn!No one can deny!Here is the life! But still remember That the first one flew. Major Gagarin, the guy is humble,Open era he managed.(Mahmud Otar-Muhtarov)
Dawn. We did not know anything.Regular `Latest news`.And he flies through the constellation.The earth will Wake up with his name.`Broad is my native land`. A familiar voice calls first.Our briefs we started with them.And that is why I remember it.Not asking padmag no one,Herself risen from the ashes and from the ashes,My country, knows no fear,Sends in the space now his son.
For this flight, the cosmonaut was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Since 1962 April 12 declared public holiday, the cosmonautics Day.
Most of all the return to Earth of Yuri Gagarin waited for his wife Valentina, and daughters Elena and Galina
The first Soviet cosmonauts
Gherman Stepanovich Titov. Hero Of The Soviet Union. Pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR, Lieutenant General of aviation. When preparing to perform the world’s first manned flight into space was as backup after Y. A. Gagarin Space flight took place August 6-7, 1961 on Board the satellite Vostok-2.
Valentina Vladimirovna Nikolaeva-Tereshkova. The world’s first female cosmonaut. Hero Of The Soviet Union. Pilot-cosmonaut, Colonel, candidate of technical Sciences. Made a space flight on 16-19 June 1963 on the spaceship “Vostok-6”.
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov on March 18-19, 1965, together with Pavel Belyaev flew into space as a co-pilot on the spacecraft Voskhod-2. The flight duration is 1 day 2 hours 2 minutes 17 seconds. During this flight, Leonov made the first in the history of cosmonautics a spacewalk lasting 12 minutes 9 seconds.
July 20, 1969 American astronauts landed on the moon. Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, lunar module pilot Edwin Eugene Aldrin, pilot of the orbital module Michael Collins. They all went into space a second time. The flight was launched from Cape Canaveral on 16 July 1969.
The first man to set foot on the moon, commander Neil Armstrong.
Gagarin Square.The monument was inaugurated on 4 July 1980 Column is in the center of a circular platform-the podium, lined with polished slabs of black granite. Next silver ball, a model of the spaceship `Vostok`. On the ball cast the inscription in memory of the first space flight.Sculptor P. Bondarenko, architect. Y. Belopolsky, F. Gajewski, designer Alexander Sudakov.