Planets of the Solar system
Jupiter thousands of years ago named after the king of Roman gods, and reigns among the nine planets of our Solar system, rivaling the Sun in its splendor. The largest planet is located far beyond the main asteroid belt. The mass of Jupiter exceeds the mass of all other planets combined.
Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar system. The semimajor axis of Jupiter’s orbit is 5.2.e. the eccentricity of the orbit e = 0,0489, the period orbits – 11,867 years. The inclination of the orbital plane to the plane of the Ecliptic is 1°1817″. The average speed along the orbit – about 13.1 km/s.
The period of rotation around the axis is 9 hours and 55 minutes. Each dot on the equator moves at a speed of 45 thousand miles per hour. Due to the centrifugal force of Jupiter is noticeably flattened (compression rate greater than 6 %). Since Jupiter is not a solid ball, and consists of gas and liquid, the Equatorial parts rotate faster than the polar regions. The rotation axis of Jupiter is nearly perpendicular to its orbit, therefore, the planet has no seasons.
The mass of the planet is M = 318 M = 1,9∙10 27 kg, radius R = 11,2 R = 71 492 km, However, Jupiter is very thin: its density is 1.33 g/cm 3. which is four times less than the density of the Earth. The acceleration of gravity at the level of the cloud surface of Jupiter sostavljaet = 2,53 g.
Jupiter is a fine object for observation. It shines even white light (albedo of 0.52). In a simple telescope or binoculars to see four giant satellites of Jupiter, discovered back in 1610 by Galileo.
According to modern concepts, the sun and the planets formed from a common dust cloud. The share of Jupiter had 2/3 of the mass of the total mass of the planets of the Solar system, but it was not enough to in the center of Jupiter started thermonuclear reactions: the planet is 80 times lighter than the smallest stars of the main sequence. However, Jupiter has its own source of heat associated with radioactive decay of substances and energy released as a result of compression. If he was warmed only by the Sun, the temperature of the upper layers would be equal To 100, the same measurements give 140 K. In the thermal regime of Jupiter play an important role the flow of internal energy from the center of the planet. The planet radiates more energy than receives from the Sun.
The atmosphere of Jupiter is 89% hydrogen and 11 % helium and resembles the chemical composition of the Sun. Its length is 6 thousand kilometers. The orange color of the atmosphere give a compound of phosphorus or sulfur. For people it is harmful because it contains toxic ammonia and acetylene.
The chemical composition of the atmosphere.
The structure of the atmosphere. The most famous formation on Jupiter, which see for 300 years (it was discovered in 1664 by Robert Hooke), – the Great Red Spot. Apparently, this long-lived atmospheric vortex 15×25 thousand km in the atmosphere of Jupiter. In the atmosphere of Jupiter also discovered a white spot the size of more than 10 thousand km.
The great Red Spot is a giant vortex in Jupiter’s atmosphere. Next are shown for comparison the Earth. I believe that Jupiter has three layers of clouds in its atmosphere. Upstairs – the clouds of frozen ammonia; under it – the crystals of ammonium hydrogen sulphide and methane, and in the lowest layer, water ice and perhaps liquid water. In addition, Jupiter has hydrogen and helium crown. The atmosphere of Jupiter and other gas planets are characterized by high-velocity winds blowing within the wide bands parallel to the equator of the planet, and in the adjacent bands on Jupiter, the winds are in the opposite directions. These bands are visible even in a small telescope and are in constant motion. The winds on Jupiter reach a speed of 500 km/h. the study of the atmosphere allowed to say that these winds also exist in lower layers, up to thousands of kilometers from external clouds. Hence it is concluded that they are controlled not by the radiation energy of the Sun and the internal heat of the planet, while on Earth it is the opposite.
The fall of comet chumacero–Levi tsunami caused many kilometers in the atmosphere. Infrared shooting. The atmosphere of Jupiter creates enormous pressure, which increases when approaching the center of the planet. Gases in the atmosphere, under such extreme conditions, are in an unusual state. For example, scientists have reason to believe that deeply enough hydrogen, being under the tremendous pressure of the atmosphere, is in a liquid metallic phase. This is not the ocean and not the atmosphere; this layer of hydrogen must have features that do not fit into our understanding of chemistry. Instead of the simple behavior of hydrogen gas, liquid metallic hydrogen is an unusual substance that can conduct electricity. Some scientists suggest that under this layer there is no solid mass at the center of Jupiter is a large temperature and pressure compress the small core diameter of 25 000 miles in metallo-silicate. The temperature in the center of Jupiter is 23 000 K.
The magnetic field of Jupiter is enormous, even in proportion to the size of the planet itself – it extends over 650 million kilometers (the orbit of Saturn!). If the magnetosphere it would be visible, she would with of the Earth had an angular size equal to the size of the moon. Jupiter’s magnetic field much stronger than earth’s, but in the direction of the Sun it is almost 40 times less. The shape of the magnetosphere of Jupiter, and other planets that are far from spherical. At a distance of 177 million km from the planet registered the most intense area of radiation, of 10 thousand times greater than in the Earth radiation belts. It is possible, generating a powerful magnetic field of Jupiter is associated with rapid rotation of the Central areas of the planet that contains metallic hydrogen and conductive.
By the beginning of the third Millennium, Jupiter’s known satellites 28. Four of them are large in size and mass. They move in almost circular orbits in the Equatorial plane of the planet. 20 outer moons are so far from planets that are invisible from its surface to the naked eye, and Jupiter in the sky the most distant of them looks smaller than the moon.