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The history of cosmonautics

Space is an inexhaustible source of discoveries. And yet thanks to technological advances, which began 400 years ago with the use of the telescope by Galileo, we know quite a lot about the Universe. Studying various forms of cosmic radiation, astronomers have discovered black holes, other planetary systems and even “glow bubbles” and the Big Bang. However, they still failed to detect any signs of life beyond our planet.

February 2, 1955 the resolution of the Government of the USSR on construction of a polygon for testing Intercontinental ballistic missiles. The Baikonur cosmodrome has decided to build in Kazakhstan. Since 1957, Baikonur is the first and largest cosmodrome in the world.

October 4, 1957 our country launched the first artificial Earth satellite (Sputnik-1).He was in orbit 92 days from October 4, 1957 January 4, 1958, for this period has made 1400 revolutions around the Earth. On each revolution around the Earth took about 100 minutes. Then the satellite burned up in Earth’s atmosphere.

October 4, 1957 is considered the beginning of the space age.In honor of this event in 1964 in Moscow was built 99-meter obelisk “Conquerors of space” in the form of rockets taking off, leaving behind a trail of fire. Continue reading

The order of the planets

Not so long ago such a statement would cause an uproar in any self-respecting astrophysicist and most likely, it ended in the usual enumeration of the several variants of the origin of our Solar system. Today, however, a number of researchers not only did not reject this version and think its main. What is the reason? We will try to understand.

It all started with sightings NASA space Observatory named “Kepler”. The satellite was launched in 2009, and in 2020 due to the loss of orientation in space failed. The Observatory was equipped with incredibly sensitive Photometer and specially designed to search for exoplanets, i.e. planets outside our Solar system like Earth. The ability of the apparatus to observe more than 100,000 stars at the same time very quickly gave the opportunity for scientists to get incredible data about other Solar systems.

In early 2010 the Observatory was discovered planetary system Kepler-33. The star Kepler-33, located in the constellation of Cygnus, was bigger than our Sun, and planets revolving around it, was very close to the parent star. Continue reading

Planets of the Solar system

Jupiter thousands of years ago named after the king of Roman gods, and reigns among the nine planets of our Solar system, rivaling the Sun in its splendor. The largest planet is located far beyond the main asteroid belt. The mass of Jupiter exceeds the mass of all other planets combined.

Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar system. The semimajor axis of Jupiter’s orbit is 5.2.e. the eccentricity of the orbit e = 0,0489, the period orbits – 11,867 years. The inclination of the orbital plane to the plane of the Ecliptic is 1°1817″. The average speed along the orbit – about 13.1 km/s.

The period of rotation around the axis is 9 hours and 55 minutes. Each dot on the equator moves at a speed of 45 thousand miles per hour. Due to the centrifugal force of Jupiter is noticeably flattened (compression rate greater than 6 %). Since Jupiter is not a solid ball, and consists of gas and liquid, the Equatorial parts rotate faster than the polar regions. The rotation axis of Jupiter is nearly perpendicular to its orbit, therefore, the planet has no seasons.

The mass of the planet is M = 318 M = 1,9∙10 27 kg, radius R = 11,2 R = 71 492 km, However, Jupiter is very thin: its density is 1.33 g/cm 3. which is four times less than the density of the Earth. The acceleration of gravity at the level of the cloud surface of Jupiter sostavljaet = 2,53 g. Continue reading

Two Muscovites have got in shorts-sheet of applicants for a flight to Mars
Two Muscovites may well go to Mars. However, only after nine years. And in case of successful realization of the international project Mars One. Candidates for the expedition were selected…

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NASA has selected six volunteers for an experiment to simulate a flight to Mars
A scene from the upcoming film “the Martian”. In the United States selected an international team of scientists from six volunteers to participate in a new experiment simulating conditions on…

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