Halley’s comet is a bright, unique comet with a period of return to the Sun of about 75-76 years, which is visible even to the naked eye. The official astronomical name of this celestial body – 1P/Halley. For the comet Halley for the first time managed to determine the elliptical orbit and set the frequency of motion in the Solar system than did the Englishman Edmond Halley (1656-1742) the astronomer Royal, physicist, geophysicist, meteorologist, mathematician and demographer, in whose honor was named the comet.
In ancient times, people observed the appearance of Halley’s comet, but did not suspect that I see the same cosmic body. The first surviving written evidence about the emergence of a “heavenly sign” dates back to the year 249 BC, and since then the approaching comet was observed at least thirty times. The last observation of the comet Halley was possible in 1986, and the next is expected in the summer of 2061. I must admit that if an event of this magnitude is regarded as an auspicious time for space exploration, once the appearance of comets were regarded by the people as a “terrible sign” of the coming change, wars, government coups. For the most part, it’s because of “strong world” of those times. It is known that Genghis Khan saw a comet, regarded it as a personal message and a call for conquest of neighboring lands. The same happened in ancient China, and even at the dawn of our era in Europe. Continue reading
Comets fascinate the human mind since ancient people first noticed the white tail streaking through the night starry sky. We remember the date when the comet flies past the Earth once a century or even less often and remember all our lives. In the middle ages in Europe, the appearance of comets was often linked to various natural disasters and diseases. In religion, these heavenly bodies also play an important role. For example, in the New Testament, the comet heralded the birth of Christ.
Astronomers find comets also interesting and fascinating space objects, because they are witnesses of great historical events and even carry evidence of them.
The comet is a relatively small object in our solar system, usually having a diameter of several kilometers. Sometimes called “dirty snowballs” because of their component substances. Usually comets are composed of the following four elements:
Ice (water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide)
Some organic materials (e.g., resin)
Rocky ground (optional) Continue reading
The period of rotation around the Sun
Of 11.86 earth years
The first “date” earthly messenger with the giant of the Solar system – Jupiter was held in late 1973. Still on approach to Jupiter by “pioneer 10”, began to transmit color images of the planet Earth. On the screens in the mission control Center dynamic unfolding panorama of the approaching giant striped. Bright stripes on Jupiter are like ridges over high and cold clouds. And Vice versa: the dark stripes are the valleys between the ridges. Among the atmospheric lanes of the South tropical zone “blazed” the bright colors of the famous Great Red Spot.
Further large-scale image of this amazing education received by “Voyager-1” (the highest resolution on the images was 5 km), allowed us to understand the complex meteorology of Jupiter. It turned out that the mysterious spot has a clearly visible vortex structure: this is a floating disturbance in the atmosphere, in other words, a huge atmospheric vortex. In the spot, there is a rise of the substance and spreading it from the center. Continue reading