Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar system
The period of rotation around the Sun
Of 11.86 earth years
The first “date” earthly messenger with the giant of the Solar system – Jupiter was held in late 1973. Still on approach to Jupiter by “pioneer 10”, began to transmit color images of the planet Earth. On the screens in the mission control Center dynamic unfolding panorama of the approaching giant striped. Bright stripes on Jupiter are like ridges over high and cold clouds. And Vice versa: the dark stripes are the valleys between the ridges. Among the atmospheric lanes of the South tropical zone “blazed” the bright colors of the famous Great Red Spot.
Further large-scale image of this amazing education received by “Voyager-1” (the highest resolution on the images was 5 km), allowed us to understand the complex meteorology of Jupiter. It turned out that the mysterious spot has a clearly visible vortex structure: this is a floating disturbance in the atmosphere, in other words, a huge atmospheric vortex. In the spot, there is a rise of the substance and spreading it from the center. This explains the relatively low temperature of the Great red Spot and anticyclonic rotation (clockwise in the southern hemisphere of the planet). In unusual conditions of Jupiter, the life expectancy of such atmospheric obrazovanije be measured by millennia. Present in the atmosphere red phosphorus, sulfur, ammonia and other chemical compounds color the disk of the planet in a reddish, brownish and yellow colors.
“Voyager-1” managed to take a picture of the night hemisphere of Jupiter. This picture shows the Aurora Borealis of more than 30 thousand km In the low latitude areas of the world visible 17 light spots. Experts believe these spots Jupiter’s lightning. It is not excluded that powerful electrical discharges on Jupiter can serve as a source of energy for the formation of complex organic molecules.
Space research came at last reliable information about the chemical composition of Jupiter. As expected, the giant planet consists mainly of two chemical elements – hydrogen and helium. According to recent tests made by the probe “Galileo”, in the atmosphere of Jupiter is almost 81% hydrogen (by mass), and the remaining 19% are owned by helium. This means that for all time of existence of the Solar system the chemical composition of Jupiter has not undergone significant changes – it remained the same, what was the protoplanetary cloud.
Like the other giant planets, Jupiter is significantly different in chemical composition from the terrestrial planets. Absolutely dominant are the hydrogen and helium in solar proportions of 3.4. 1, but in the center of the planet according to the existing models there is a liquid core of molten metals and silicates, surrounded by water-ammonia liquid membrane. The radius of this nucleus is about 1/10 the radius of the planet, the mass
Of 0.3-0.4 of its weight, a temperature of about 2500 K at a pressure of
The flow of heat from the interior of Jupiter is twice the energy it receives from the Sun.
Due to the lack of a solid surface such as the atmosphere of Jupiter is missing. Its atmosphere consists mainly of hydrogen and helium, but there is a small admixture of methane, the molecules of water, ammonia, etc.
Very small additions to major components of Jupiter’s atmosphere (hydrogen and helium) are ammonia, methane and some hydrogen and other hydrocarbon chemicals. Water in Jupiter’s atmosphere was much less than anticipated – about 0.002 per cent. This exceptional “dryness” of the atmosphere of the largest planet of the Solar system is still an inexplicable mystery.
Contrary to theoretical calculations, the density of the upper layers of Jupiter’s atmosphere was much higher than expected. The temperature was also above predicted. Generally, space research has shown that the internal field of Jupiter is much hotter than Saturn. The heat coming from the bowels of Jupiter, causes the planet’s atmosphere hurricane wind flows. The wind speed during the descent of the probe reached 180 m/s, or 650 km/h!
Knowledge of the chemical composition of Jupiter, supplemented by results of researches of gravitational fields (the latter was done by tracking the movement of spacecraft flying close), allowed to model the structure of the planet. The outermost layer of Jupiter – the gas consisting almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. Its thickness is 0.02 of the radius of Jupiter. At the bottom of this layer or at a depth of about 1 thousand km (counting from the top of the cloud), the hydrogen becomes liquid. Here begins the ocean of liquid molecular hydrogen thickness 0.22 radius of Jupiter.
At a depth equal to 0.24 of the radius of the planet, or 17 thousand miles, at a pressure of 3 million atmospheres and a temperature of 10 000 °C is liquid hydrogen transition in qualitatively new condition – metallic phase. He turns to metal, in which protons and electrons are separated. On the physical properties of metallic hydrogen like normal liquid metal with high conductivity. With the rapid rotation of Jupiter, appears in a strong circular electric currents, which generate the powerful magnetic field of the planet.
Jupiter is the existence of a huge flat ring of dust and small stones, with a width of 6 km and width 1 km stretches to tens of thousands of km from the top of the clouds.
I would like to once again draw attention to one very important circumstance: the giant planets and their major representative Jupiter does not have a surface in the full sense of the word, which separated would be the hard shell of the planet from the original hydrogen of the ocean. In other words, an abrupt transition from liquid molecular hydrogen to metal on Jupiter does not exist. Also, apparently, there is no clear boundary between atmosphere and jupiterians global hydrogen ocean.
In the Central area of Jupiter should be relatively large nucleus whose radius is equal to 0.15 of the radius of the planet itself. This kernel may consist of heavy components (metals and silicates) and ice (water, ammonia and methane). The temperature in the hypothetical center of Jupiter’s core can reach up to 25 000 °C and the pressure is 80 million atmospheres!
Space scouts has opened in Jupiter’s giant magnetosphere, which is much like earth, only much larger: about 10 times larger than the diameter of the Sun!
The magnetic field at the poles of Jupiter is 20 times stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field. It is generated by electric currents arising in the bowels of the planet, apparently, in the layer, where under the influence of enormous pressure hydrogen is passed into the metallic state. The high viscosity substance the whole layer rotates with the same period 9 hours 55 minutes 29,37 seconds. The uniform solid rotation under the cloud layer indicate periodic radio bursts, which follow one another with exceptional accuracy. But the magnetic field rotation is the rotation of Jupiter around its axis.
Jupiterians inside the magnetosphere is extremely powerful radiation belt with a diameter of 2 million 500 thousand km to 40 thousand times more of the earth’s radiation belts. First overcame his spacecraft “pioneer 10”. Only one hour flight in the most intense area of radiation the device has received incredible exposure dose: even a thousandth fraction of it would be fatal to humans. A “pioneer” survived! After leaving the radiation belt, he is alive again. On the screens in the mission control Center was seen as a giant planet slowly moved away into the abyss of space.
Here are the amazing discoveries in the world of Jupiter were made with “smart” space machines.